Used Car

Cars are considered as one of the most important assets that make our life easy in our day-to-day routines and choosing the right kind of job can be tiresome because of the variety of cars that are available. Proper guidance to find the right kind of used cars can provide you with required results that you would expect your car to serve. This article will help you to find the apt used car that you are looking for.

The first thing that you need to assess when you are looking out to purchase the car is to lay down the requirements that you expect, it is important that you stay focused much on your needs rather than wants. Think about the purpose, the number of family members, the kind of roads you/ driver will drive and the distance that you are going to cover on a daily basis.

It is important that you need to assess the budget that you can afford to allocate for financing the used car either from your personal savings or are you intending to go for auto financing. In case you are choosing auto financing as your finance option then it is important that you need to consider the loan amount, interest rates that you can afford to pay on monthly basis and even the time it will take to payback the loan. It is important that you screen the cars that are within your affordability limits. It depends on the financial sources that you can either lease the car or buy a car. Leasing a car provides you with the benefit of low monthly payments and initial amount. On the other hand buying a car will have a vice versa effect.

These days, it is important to understand that people are going in for auto financing rather than self financing. There are a number of exciting offers that are available through the car dealers, banks and institutions that specialize in auto financing and dealer financing.

Internet is the most widely used option to have access to any kind of information be it for used cars finance sources, used cars models, used cars dealers or any other information.

It is important to note that you need to do a research on the different kinds of car models, body style, manufacturer and the payment range on the internet before you directly land in the showrooms. It is wise choice that you consider all the aspects of cost that you will incur like the fuel cost, maintenance cost, depreciation cost and the other costs that may arise for effective functioning.

The next aspect that has to be considered is to take the car for a test drive and assess its functioning. First confirm if the car is available for test drive and then confirm an appropriate schedule. Test drive can be taken on different kinds of roads and it is important that you spend sufficient time to evaluate the performance of the car inspect for scratches and dents. Finally select the car that gives you satisfactory performance.


William Campbell Company New York – Merger and Acquisition Overview in Small-business


This article is intended to help potential clients better understand the M&A process. It reflects our experience that most business owners have little idea of the process, and yet want and deserve to be fully informed.

Typical Merger & Acquisition Cycle


Advice on the M&A process. / A preliminary, free of charge, Business Valuation. / Assessment of current M&A market conditions in the relevant industry sector. / Transaction timetable: A review of any upcoming business events, cash flow issues and others. / Exploration of exit strategies based on the client’s goals and business position. / Begin Development/ Campaign execution / Deal Comparison and Structuring / Closing Stages.


Before starting an assignment, we work together with clients to build a complete set of milestones and target dates associated with the M&A cycle.

Then, during the M&A sales cycle we hold regular reviews with you to assess how far we’re along the plan and how well it’s working. In this way you can be sure that William Campbell Company is performing as expected, not placing you on the back burner.

The net targeted aim is to complete a transaction on-time and on-budget, fulfilling your plans and objectives with no surprises or unnecessary delays.

Our clients can rest assured knowing that We will maintain complete confidentiality until disclosure is absolutely necessary and approved by you. This protects the interests of your company, and along with it, your personal interest and your employees interest.

For complete details of our services, please contact us directly.

William Campbell Company is an Investment Banking and Business Consulting firm. Over many years, in the USA and Worldwide, our principals, most ofwhom are actually ex – C-level Executives, have driven and took part in numerous Mergers and Acquisitions. We’re professionally conscious of the progression, planning, and methods to formulate a tactical benefit in stressed occasions.

Numerous companies are battling to keep an upward momentum in this time of restricted credit and gradual development. The incidents of recent months could have sorely examined business enterprise outcomes.

However we feel inclusion of appropriate sophisticated business routines, cautious monetary administration or wise strategic industry improvement could deliver extraordinary possibilities to the private organization, business proprietor or buyer considering beyond the gloom and tragedy of today’s industry.



Good Carpet Cleaning Levittown in Cleaning

Before we get down to the gist of the discussion its best that as early on we make it clear that you won’t be able to find actual suggestions for carpet cleaning companies in Levittown as it will defeat the purpose of this article. Because when it comes to carpet cleaning Levittown will have many possible candidates – but not all them will be good of course, which is why you have this article to help you get the best company there is within your area.

In essence, carpet cleaning will often need to be handled by professionals to make the task easy. Of course you will be able to clean your carpets personally but you will still need to get them cleaned by professionals every once in a while if you want them to last long. To help you whittle down your choices to the best companies within your area, here are some tips that you can use:

Compare Prices

The first step in getting the carpet cleaning services that you want would be to compare the prices being charged by the different cleaning services within your area. The internet will be able to help you out greatly in this regard as it will allow you to easily compare prices between one company to the next without having to really go anywhere. Of course you still might end up calling a few of the companies for specific details regarding their services but in a sense your search will already be targeted to the few that you think will be able to do the job within reasonable prices.

Get References

Your friends can serve as valuable resources for good companies. Ask those who’ve used the services of a carpet cleaning company and if they were satisfied with what they got. If you are unable to get information from your friends, call the company itself and ask for references that they can give. Call the individuals given by the company as references to find out if they were satisfied by the services of the carpet cleaning company that you are interested in. This is also a good way to find out about the after cleaning services provided by the company.

Check the Fine Print

Once you have your possible candidates written down, the next step would be to go over the details with them. Ask about the types of equipments they are using, the training of their workers, and how long a cleaning session can take. Find out what the company is able to offer in terms of guarantees and warranties. Be clear about the services that you will be getting before signing anything in order to avoid surprises later on.

When it comes to carpet cleaning Levittown will have many companies that you can turn to, but remember that not all of them will be able to offer you value for your money, which is why you will need to take note of what’s mentioned above to ensure that the company you choose will be the right one for you.


Stock Online Trading Systems Comparison in Online-trading

If you wish to work at home and generate a worthwhile revenue, look at online trading systems. Feel free to use play money accounts before you get the hang of it, and that’s just what helps make day trading so great. While practicing day trading employing play money, you need to create an online trading system which works for you. The different trading systems are going to be reviewed in this article.

The first trading system we’ll discuss is scalping. Scalping may perhaps be the very best and most common where numerous new day traders starting out employ. As soon as a trade becomes worthwhile, scalping sells pretty much right away. Your goal would be to trade right when you make money! By doing this you rarely throw money away with scalping. For anyone who is just starting out, scalping is definitely the very best and most secure route to go! Together with virtually any online trading system, it’s still likely to take a lot of training.

Another common trading system in the stock market is fading. Fading will involve shorting stocks immediately after speedy movements upwards. This will depend on three factors: 1, stocks are overbought; 2, buyers will be ready to bring in the profits; and three, the market frightened the clients. It’s a worthwhile system, and also a hazardous one, too.

Capitalizing from the stock’s daily lack of stability is what’s involved in the Daily Pivots stock market trading system. This is achieved by simply trying to purchase the stock at the lowest place for the day and then sell at the highest point. This can be a great strategy and might work for you!

Another online trading systems, The Momentum system, frequently requires trading upon news reports or locating robust trending actions supported by substantial volume. You may make a lot of money applying momentum for a stock day trading system.

All these online trading systems function perfectly with day trading, however you need to pick one that you can understand speedily, and something you will be confident with. The day trading industry may be tricky and can cost you lots of money, particularly if you try to jump right in without training. The secret for your success lies in your perseverance and just how much commitment you devote for marketplace training. Best of luck!


Honda Motor Scooters in Scooter

In this article we will discuss modern driving habits and the solutions provided by the Honda Motor Scooter. Americans love to drive. Their cars are their castles! As fun and necessary as driving can be, the amount of cars on the road has created traffic problems that anyone who lives in a metropolitan area can relate to. Long hours on the freeway, the high cost of gas, and the nightmare of finding a parking space all make people want to simply stay home! Staying home may not be an option, but people are searching for new ways of transportation that are saner, greener and more fun. Motorcycles are one option. They are smaller than cars, making parking easier, and they consume less gas. The drawback of a motorcycle is its weight and its reputation for danger. Enter the scooter!

Honda has made cars, motorcycles, and is now on the cutting edge of scooter design and production. A Honda motor scooter carries with it decades of successful and economical design expertise. Review some basic facts below and make an educated choice.

There are a few drawbacks to consider. If you are driving sixty miles a day on the freeway to commute to a job, often a car is the only choice. A scooter is not an authorized vehicle for highway driving. Likewise, if you live in a cold or rainy climate, a scooter may not be the best choice since they offer little protection from the elements. Driving a Honda motor scooter, as with all scooters, also requires a special Motorcycle License at DMV which necessitates a driving safety course and a separate written exam to obtain.

However, depending on your lifestyle, a scooter, specifically a Honda motor scooter may be the exact solution you are looking for.

They are perfect for anyone who commutes within town for short distances. Scooters also come with storage compartments which close and lock and can carry a briefcase or a bag of groceries. Scooters can be parked almost anywhere and take up very little space in the home garage. Their fuel efficiency is tops, so with a scooter you can expect to save a bundle on gas money. The Honda motor scooter specifically has a reputation for burning less gas. You will save money and conserve the environment.

And as a nod to the American passion for fun driving, the Honda motor scooter comes in a variety of styles and colors. Check the Honda website and your local Honda dealer for specials and customization. Have fun and drive safely!


What is Inside a Mattress? in Mattress

I have seen people quite often asking questions like: “what kind of mattress is good?” “What is the best mattress in the market?” When I see questions like that, I know a proper way to ask should be “What is the right mattress for me?” Again, there is no single good mattress or claimed best mattress, but there is a mattress in the market that meets your sleeping requirement and your budget. When you look at mattresses, you really should look at what is really inside the mattress to determine whether the mattress is right for you. In this article, we will explore what is inside an innerspring mattress.

Everyone knows that coils or springs are the core of a mattress. Indeed, they provide the support you needed. There are a number of ways to construct the coils such as contiguous coil and pocket coil. Each design has its own pros and cons. For example, pocket coil will separate the motion transfer so it is perfect for a couple. A salesman is likely to greet you and show you how many coils (coil count) the mattress has and how good the mattress is. Well, you need to look further more than just the coil count and coil gauge. The upholstery layer is key for determining how comfortable the mattress will be. There are four layers above the coils: Insulation, cushioning, quilting and ticking.

Insulation is the layer right on top of the coils and it can be made from fiber or mesh. Cushioning lies on top of insulation and it determines how the mattress feels against your body. A lot of materials can be used in this layer such as convoluted foam, purfoam, felt, cotton, non-woven fiber pads..etc. The quality of the materials and how thick the layer is usually makes a big difference on the price.

The quilting is the top layer inside the mattress and this layer is commonly referring to names like “pilllowtop” and “eurotop”. These tops are added to make the mattress softer especially good for side sleepers. Finally, ticking is just a fancy word for the cover of the mattress. It is also kind of a protection layer for the mattress.


Mass Flow Sensor in Air

Automotive mass airflow sensors

This section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2009)

A mass airflow sensor.

A mass air flow sensor is used to find out the mass of air entering a fuel-injected internal combustion engine. The air mass information is necessary for the engine control unit (ECU) to balance and deliver the correct fuel mass to the engine. Air changes its density as it expands and contracts with temperature and pressure. In automotive applications, air density varies with the ambient temperature, altitude and use of a turbocharger and this is an ideal application for a mass sensor. (See stoichiometry and ideal gas law.)

There are two common types of mass airflow sensors in usage on automotive engines. These are the vane meter and the hot wire. Neither design employs technology that measures air mass directly. However, with an additional sensor or two, the engine’s air mass flow rate can be accurately determined.

Both approaches are used almost exclusively on electronic fuel injection (EFI) engines. Both sensor designs output a 0.0- 5.0 volt or a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal that is proportional to the air mass flow rate, and both sensors have an intake air temperature (IAT) sensor incorporated into their housings.

When a MAF is used in conjunction with an oxygen sensor, the engine’s air/fuel ratio can be controlled very accurately. The MAF sensor provides the open-loop predicted air flow information (the measured air flow) to the ECU, and the oxygen sensor provides closed-loop feedback in order to make minor corrections to the predicted air mass. Also see MAP sensor.

Vane meter sensor

This section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2009)

A vane, or paddle, projects into the engine intake air stream on a spring-loaded arm. The vane moves in proportion to the airflow, and a voltage is generated in proportion to the distance the vane moves, or the movement of the vane directly regulates the amount of fuel injected, as in the K-Jetronic system.

The vane moves because of the drag force of the air flow against it, it does not measure volume or mass directly. The drag force depends on air density, velocity and the shape of the vane, see drag equation.

The vane meter approach has some drawbacks:

it restricts airflow which limits engine output

its moving electrical or mechanical contacts can wear

finding a suitable mounting location within a confined engine compartment is problematic

the vane has to be oriented with respect to gravity.

Hot wire sensor (MAF)

This section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2009)

A hot wire mass airflow sensor determines the mass of air flowing into the engine air intake system. The theory of operation of the hot wire mass airflow sensor is similar to that of the hot wire anemometer (which determines air velocity). The General Motors division (GM) was the first car company to use the hot wire sensor.[citation needed] This is achieved by heating a wire with an electric current that is suspended in the engine air stream, like a toaster wire. The wire’s electrical resistance increases as the wire temperature increases, which limits electrical current flowing through the circuit. When air flows past the wire, the wire cools, decreasing its resistance, which in turn allows more current to flow through the circuit. As more current flows, the wire temperature increases until the resistance reaches equilibrium again. The amount of current required to maintain the wire temperature is directly proportional to the mass of air flowing past the wire. The integrated electronic circuit converts the measurement of current into a voltage signal which is sent to the ECU.

If air density increases due to pressure increase or temperature drop, but the air volume remains constant, the denser air will remove more heat from the wire indicating a higher mass airflow. Unlike the vane meter’s paddle sensing element, the hot wire responds directly to air density. This sensor’s capabilities are well suited to support the gasoline combustion process which fundamentally responds to air mass, not air volume. (See stoichiometry.)

Some of the benefits of a hot-wire MAF compared to the older style vane meter are:

responds very quickly to changes in air flow

low airflow restriction

smaller overall package

less sensitive to mounting location and orientation

no moving parts improve its durability

less expensive

separate temperature and pressure sensors are not required (to determine air mass)

There are some drawbacks:

dirt and oil can contaminate the hot-wire deteriorating its accuracy

installation requires a laminar flow across the hot-wire

“Coldwire” sensor

This section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2009)

The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page.

A Holden Commodore’s MAF sensor

The GM LS engine series (as well as others) use a “coldwire” MAF system (produced by AC Delco) where the inductance of a tiny sensor changes with the air mass flow over that sensor. The sensor is part of an oscillator circuit whose oscillation frequency changes with sensor inductance; hence the frequency is related to the amount of air (cubic feet per minute) passing over the unit. This oscillating electrical signal is then fed to the car’s ECU. These MAF units (such as the one pictured) have 3 pins, denoted +, – and F. F carries the square-wave frequency between – and F. They are powered by +5 VDC from the ECU’s regulated power supply.

The mesh on the MAF is used to smooth out airflow to ensure the sensors have the best chance of a steady reading. It is not used for measuring the air flow per se. In situations where owners use oiled-gauze air filters, it is possible for excess oil to coat the MAF sensor and skew its readings. Indeed, General Motors has issued a Technical Service Bulletin, indicating problems from rough idle all the way to possible transmission damage resulting from the contaminated sensors. To clean the delicate MAF sensor components, a specific MAF or Electronics Cleaner should be used, not carburetor or brake cleaner. These are alcohol or CFC-based solvents, rather than the harsh petroleum distillates used in the other cleaners… The sensors should be gently sprayed from a careful distance to avoid physically damaging them. Manufacturers claim that a simple but extremely reliable test to ensure correct functionality is to tap the unit with the back of a screwdriver while the car is running, and if this causes any changes in the output frequency then the unit should be discarded and an OEM replacement installed.

Krmn vortex sensor

Animation of the phenomenon. Courtesy, Cesareo de La Rosa Siqueira.

A Krmn vortex sensor works by setting up a laminar air stream. The air stream is disrupted by a vertical bow in the sensor. This causes a wake in the air stream and subsequently the wake will collapse repeatedly and cause Krmn vortexes. The frequency of the resulting air pressure oscillation is proportional to the air velocity.

These vortexes can either be read directly as a pressure pulse against a sensor, or they can be made to collide with a mirror which will then interrupt or transmit a reflected light beam to generate the pulses in response to the vortexes. The first type can only be used in pull thru air (prior to a turbo- or supercharger), while the second type could theoretically be used push or pull thru air (before or after a forced induction application like the previously mentioned super- or turbocharger). Instead of outputting a constant voltage modified by a resistance factor, this type of MAF outputs a frequency which must then be interpreted by the ECU. This type of MAF can be found on Mitsubishi Lancers/EVOs, all DSMs (Mitsubishi Eclipse, Eagle Talon, Plymouth Laser) and some Toyota’s and Lexuses.

More information can be found here:

Membrane sensor

This section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2009)

An emerging technology utilizes a very thin electronic membrane placed in the air stream. The membrane has a thin film temperature sensor printed on the upstream side, and one on the downstream side. A heater is integrated in the center of the membrane which maintains a constant temperature similar to the hot-wire approach. Without any airflow, the temperature profile across the membrane is uniform. When air flows across the membrane, the upstream side cools differently from the downstream side. The difference between the upstream and downstream temperature indicates the mass airflow. The thermal membrane sensor is also capable of measuring flow in both directions, which sometimes occur in pulsating situations. Technological progress allows this kind of sensor to be manufactured on the microscopic scale as microsensors using Microelectromechanical systems technology. Such a microsensor reaches a significantly higher speed and sensitivity compared with macroscopic approaches. See also MEMS sensor generations.

Auto Repair Technician observation

This section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2009)

This section may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. More details may be available on the talk page. (November 2009)

The Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor senses the amount of incoming air (Volume) into the engine. This sensor does not regulate the incoming air, this is done by the engine throttle plates. The MAF merely senses incoming air and relates a signal to the ECM. Air flow sensors come in three types. The Vane Air Flow sensor, Hot Wire MAF sensor and Hot Film MAF sensor. They all perform the same function but their operation is quite different.

The VAF sensor measures the amount of air flow into the engine with a spring-loaded air flap/door attached to a variable resistor (potentiometer). VAF sensors measure air volume and not mass. The incoming air strikes or pushes against the internal air flap on the VAF sensor, which also moves the variable resistor sensing arm (wiper arm). As air flows into the engine the mechanical air flap rotates further, causing the wiper arm to contact a series of resistors, changing the voltage signal output.

The VAF sensor has an air-fuel adjustment screw, which opens or closes a small air passage on the side of the VAF sensor. This screw controls the air-fuel mixture by letting a metered amount of air flow past the air flap, thereby, leaning or richening the mixture. By turning the screw clockwise the mixture is enriched and counterclockwise the mixture is leaned. In addition to the regular air flow measuring function, some VAF sensors also employ an air temperature sensor (IAT sensor) and a fuel pump switch.

The IAT sensor is found inside the VAF casing and has the same electrical characteristics as a regular air temperature sensor. The VAF sensor flap also closes a set of contacts that activate the fuel pump relay coil (circuit opening relay). The contacts are actually closed as soon as the smallest amount of air pushes on the air flow flap. Once this happens the fuel pump starts running and the engine starts.

One of the main drawbacks of the VAF sensor is that it measures volume of air and not weight. As air temperature changes so does its weight. There are more air molecules present when the air is colder than when it is hotter. As air temperature decreases, more air is absorbed by the engine, so there are drastic changes needed in the air fuel ratio (depending on the temperature of the air). The air temperature sensor inside the VAF somewhat compensates by signaling the ECM of any changes in air temperature.

The HOT WIRE MAF sensor is a fully electronic unit. It senses the amount of air flow into the engine by measuring the amount of current needed to maintain a constant temperature through a very thin (70 micrometers) platinum hot wire. Hence the name hot wire MAF sensor. It also measures air by weight, since it takes into consideration the air temperature as well.

This sensor works as follows. As the air enters the intake manifold through the hot wire MAF sensor it cools down the platinum wire, which is heated at a very precise temperature. When the MAF circuitry senses the platinum wire cooling down it increases the amount of current flow through the hot wire trying to maintain a specific temperature. This varying current flow is then converted to a voltage output signal by the MAF electronic circuitry and is used as an air flow indicator by the ECM. Hot wire MAF sensors have a signal that is directly proportional to air flow. So as air flow increases so does its voltage signal output.

This sensor sometimes employs a mixture screw, but this screw is fully electronic and uses a variable resistor (potentiometer) instead of an air bypass screw. The screw needs more turns to achieve the desired results. A hot wire burn-off cleaning circuit is employed on some of these sensors. A burn-off relay applies a high current through the platinum hot wire after the vehicle is turned off for a second or so, thereby burning or vaporizing any contaminants that have stuck to the platinum hot wire element.

The HOT FILM MAF sensor works somewhat similar to the hot wire MAF sensor, but instead it usually outputs a frequency signal. This sensor uses a hot film-grid instead of a hot wire. It is commonly found in late 80 early 90 fuel injected vehicles. The output frequency is directly proportional to the amount of air entering the engine. So as air flow increases so does frequency. These sensors tend to cause intermittent problems due to internal electrical failures. The use of an oscilloscope is strongly recommended to check the output frequency of these sensors. Frequency distortion is also common when the sensor starts to fail. Many technicians in the field use a tap test with very conclusive results. Not all HFM systems output a frequency. In some cases, this sensor works by outputting a regular varying voltage signal.

Conditions that affect operation

This section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2009)

This section may contain original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding references. Statements consisting only of original research may be removed. More details may be available on the talk page. (November 2009)

VAF sensors are mechanical in nature. Their measuring element (wiper contact, pivot bushings and sensor resistors) get worn out over time. A binding air flap door is also a major problem with these sensors. The air flap mechanism is extremely precise and does not tolerate any misalignments. Always make sure that the air flap can travel freely all the way to its full open position. A broken air duct pipe will also render the VAF useless, since most of the air will be bypassed and enter though the broken duct hole. A thorough air duct check is always a good idea. The resistors also tend to wear out over time, sending the wrong voltage signal to the ECM. This will certainly throw off the air-fuel ratio.

The air temperature sensor and the fuel pump switch are the other reasons for VAF failures. This fuel pump switch activates the fuel pump relay and its contacts also wear down over time, causing a no start-no no-fuel pressure condition. A simple continuity test will quickly reveal a bad fuel pump switch. The air temperature sensor also follows the same electrical characteristics of a normal IAT sensor and the same ohms to temperature tables could be used for diagnostics.

Hot Wire MAF sensors are very prone to sensing wire element contamination. A condition referred to by many technicians as rowing hairs happens when debris, dirt from cheap air filters and outside air stick to the sensing wire element, shielding it from the incoming air. This shielding effect prevents the MAF sensor from correctly measuring the air flow and mass causing severe air-fuel ratio control problems. An ECM not in control while at pre-load is a strong indication of a dirty MAF.

In any fully electronic device, the electrical connections and circuitry fails after a certain lifespan of operation. An output signal voltage test will surely reveal a bad MAF sensor.

Hot Film MAF sensors tend to get electrical damage more often that the other type of sensors. The tap test ,as mentioned before, is a useful and simple procedure that usually reveals a bad hot film MAF sensor. Contamination or a broken air duct is also a problem for this type of sensor.


Automotive air measurement sensors are manufactured by several manufacturers, including Continental VDO, Sensata Technologies, Bosch, Denso, Visteon, Delphi, AC Delco, Hitachi, Pierburg, Lwe Automobil, and Gill Sensors. The biggest manufacturers are Bosch, Siemens VDO and Pierburg.

Laminar flow elements

This section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2009)

Laminar flow elements measure the mass flow of gases directly. They operate on the principle that, given laminar flow, the pressure difference across a pipe is linear to the flow rate. Laminar flow conditions are present in a gas when the Reynolds number of the gas is below the critical figure. The viscosity of the fluid must be compensated for in the result. Laminar flow elements are usual constructed form a large number of parallel pipes to achieve the required flow rating.

See also

List of sensors

Manifold absolute pressure (MAP)


^ “Air Flow Sensors”.


Paint Balling in Confusion in Paintball

Based on the title of this article I know what you are thinking; paintballing could be very confusing. What an interesting topic. But of course I’m kidding, and sarcasm aside, the last thing anyone is interested in reading about is an article on paintballing outside of a paintball magazine. So you might find comfort in knowing that that is not the aim of this article.

My intention here is to show how an open minded entrepreneur was willing to hear an out of the box suggestion for his business and how it made a difference.

I was out with some friends of mine on a cross country road trip. We had saved up a lot of money throughout our years in college and we decided to “check out our own backyard” i.e. tour the United States of America. Most of the people in our graduate class were going to Europe be we decided to get to know our own country before getting to know someone else’s.

To make a very long story short (and trust me it’s a very long story) we ended up in some paintball place in the middle of Arkansas. It was a very interesting place. Why you might ask? Because the place was not an ordinary paintball place, it had the most creative props; mannequins.

For those of you who do not know much about paintball shooting the concept is simple. Paintball shooting is when two opposing teams try to “get each other out” by hitting their opponents with paintballs. Normally the paintball course is full of things like tires and wooded tranches for players to hide behind. But in this paintball field the place was crowded with mannequins. They were dressed in every kind of outfit and in every kind of pose.

It was so confusing!

Imagine trying to pursue a fleeing opponent and around every corner there is something that looks just like an opponent but is made out of plastic! I’m not going to go on about the fun we had in hat paintball outfit. What I will say however is that the concept was great and here’s why (in my humble opinion.)

People are creatures of habit, we learn how to do something and once we master it no longer seek new ways to improve the way that we have learned. This is a major flaw. We call people geniuses because they are the people who look at the same things that everyone else looks at but in an original and sometimes dramatically different way. This enables them to thin outside the box and bring innovation to the world. This is a small example of how some guy who could have made his paintball joint look just like every other but instead made it a highly original place and therefore a unique experience for his clients.


World’s Most Famous Paintings in Painting

Paintings are made with different patterns, different strokes and different colors. Whatever it is made of, it is sure to give the emotions their painter’s felt while making them. There are some paintings that are hard to understand because of the extraordinary patterns that were used and with a title so different from the artwork. Nonetheless, these paintings still can trigger a strong feeling of emotion. This article will then discuss the most famous works of art in the world.

The oil painting of Leonardo de Vinci, the Mona Lisa, is undoubtedly one of the world’s renowned paintings.  This painting is known because of Mona Lisa’s mysterious smile. At the present, the Mona Lisa can be found in Louvre Museum in France and is noted to be one of the paintings which have the highest insurance value.

Another painting that is famous in the whole world is the Starry Night of Vincent van Gogh painted in 1889 while he was in an asylum, at Saint Remy. Nowadays, Starry Night is considered as one of the most replicated and most sought after prints.

To add to the list of the world’s most famous painting is the Massacre of the Innocents by Peter Paul Rubens. The painting is a depiction of the biblical episode where King Herod ordered the murder of all baby boy Jews for he was told that the King of Jews was already born. A Canadian newspaper baron named Kenneth Thompson bought the painting in an auction in London for £49.5 million in 2002. He donated the artwork to the Art Gallery of Ontario. Now, the painting can be found on display the London National Gallery.

The Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali is also one of the most famous paintings of the world.

The painting created in 1931 is one of the surrealist paintings ever introduced. The melting clock in the artwork symbolizes Dali’s central thinking during that time –  softness and harness. Some also said that the melting clock stands for the irrelevance of time. Since 1934, the painting is already included in the collection of artworks and is displayed in the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.

These are just few of the most renowned paintings in the world. If you do not have the chance and the means to see these paintings in their original form, you can search them in the Internet. These paintings will definitely teach you how to appreciate art and may even inspire you to make your own painting.


Computer Support Wireless vs. Wired Systems in Network

When constructing computer network for your home or business you may be stressed by a question ” should I go with wired or wireless network?” Well to be honest both have their pros and downsides. In this article we will compare wired to wireless network.

Wired LANs usually require a central device such as hub, swith or a router in order to connect multiple computers together. Installation of the wired network is obviously longer as you have to run wires through the building most of the time through the walls. Cost is also greater than the wireless network do to more parts needed. ( Its always good to buy network wire in bulk.) One of the biggest pluses of wired network is reliability. Wired networks are very reliable as you don’t have to worry about reception problems. When it comes to performance wireless networks will never be able to match wired networks. Security is also better with wired networks as your computer data goes through the cable instead of air. All wireless networks can be cracked some take more time than others but all can be cracked depending on your security setting. For example if you have wep security mode for your wireless network it can be cracked in less than an hours by a skilled hacker. Most of the time wep can be cracked in couple minutes.

Now lets talk about wireless networks. The most common wifi communication standard used now is 802.11g and 802.11n. Installation of the wireless network is very quick. Wifi network can be set up to either a peer to peer mode where each computer connect to other computer and vice versa or Infrastructure where all computers connect to central device that most of the time is connect to the wired network. This way wireless networks can communicate with wired part of the network. Wireless devices usuall work on a 100ft radius from the central device. The farther computer is from the central device the weaker the signal. Weaker signal means lower performance.

In conclusion we have

Wired network pros

Wired network cons
-installation cost
-movability ( You can not just move your computer without dealing with all the wires)

Wireless network pros

Wireless network cons
-reliability (You can always drop a signal)

Most of the time you will see that businesses will use wired network as they need security, performance and reliability. Businesses do not move computers around so movability is not an issue to them. Wireless network are very common for home users as they are cheaper and perform good enough for most users.