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Importance of Fitness and Conception in Health

Television portrays the woman’s ability to conceive as a relatively easy objective to accomplish; however, the medical research and the rise in the use of the egg bank indicate otherwise. According to the medical research, there are approximately 7.3 million women between the ages of 15 to 44 that have trouble getting pregnant. Another 2.1 million married women within that same age group are also experiencing difficulties getting pregnant. Fertility problems in women are quite common; millions of women each year consider utilizing resources like an egg bank and various forms of fertility counseling.

Numerous studies show that there is a definite link between fitness and conception. Women in the process of trying to conceive, who may be using an egg bank , will have to revisit certain habits in order to improve chances for conception. Weight, diet, exercise and stress management all play a role in a woman’s ability to successfully conceive. While some factors like medical history or spontaneous abortion can affect a woman’s capacity to conceive, a healthy lifestyle can cancel out much of these variables.

Diet and infertility

According to a Harvard Nurses’ Health Study, diet affects fertility levels. The study included 18,000 women with infertility problems. Commercial fast food and other processed foods have been proven to affect fertility. The research recommends that foods high in trans fats should be avoided by women trying to conceive. Increasing the amount of vegetable protein in the diet is also recommended. Legumes are considered to be a viable source of protein, while animal-based proteins should be reduced by women struggling with fertility problems. Increasing dairy intake to at least one serving a day is encouraged by fertility experts. The study shows that refined carbohydrates increased the likelihood of infertility problems. This was attributed to the impact the refined carbohydrates have on the insulin levels in the body. Whole grain foods and brown rice are the best types of carbohydrates for women because they have less of an impact on the insulin levels. Dietary changes may pay off for women trying to conceive.

Weight and infertility

Weight also plays an important role in infertility. According to fertility experts, women with a body mass index (BMI) between the ranges 20-24 have a better chance of conception. Infertility in men can increase by 10% with obesity, the European Commission says. Obesity can impact the hormone levels in women, causing certain types of infertility problems. If visiting an egg bank , it is likely that one will have to undergo an infertility work-up to determine whether or not the thyroid or any other health challenges exist that may be affecting the woman’s ability to conceive. Obesity in women can contribute to conditions such as polycystic ovaries, excessive estrogen or menstrual problems. A recent report by the European Commission, a reduction in weight by between five to ten percent can improve fertility levels in both men and women. A small reduction or increase in weight affects the fertility levels in both men and women.

Exercise and infertility

Some experts recommend that women who exercise regularly are less likely to experience fertility problems. By exercising just 30 minutes each day, a woman can improve fertility conditions related to issues with ovulation. Finding the balance for the appropriate amount of exercise is an important factor. Women who exercise more than seven hours a week are more likely to have a difficult time conceiving. Some studies show that 40 percent of women that exercise too often can experience difficulties with conception. Women undergoing fertility counseling and using an egg donor bank may experience poor results if exercising more than four hours a week. Too much exercise can have an effect on the progesterone and other hormone levels in the body. Rigorous exercise routines can be modified by incorporating more low impact aerobic activity. Adding an exercise routine for women with a sedentary lifestyle can improve a woman’s chances of conceiving.

The University of Surrey Research showed that couples that made moderate dietary and lifestyle changes experienced an 80 percent success rate in conception. The frustration often experienced by women trying to conceive can be overwhelming, but much of the issues with conceptions can be identified through fertility counseling. Small, incremental changes in weight, diet and exercise habits can really improve the overall outcome for couples trying to conceive. Never has there ever been more technology in the area of medicine available to women having difficulty conceiving. Considerable advancements in the area of women’s health are now used to help women with infertility. Before ruling out the possibility of ever becoming parent, women are encouraged to explore any and all options available to them.

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Trading Ipos For Profit in Stock

You should quick the stock alternatives approximately 10 days prior to the IPO lockup expiration date, because anticipation of the function typically scares traders out of the stock choices perfectly prior to its actual date. Cover the short about five days just after the expiration date. By that time, most insiders will look to have sold, and the news will be priced into the stock possibilities.

Like any other trade, these essentials of stock options investing tips are not foolproof. The way to invest in is with a limit order right after the stock’s price has pulled back a bit and is about to bounce and keep on upward again. The aim is to purchase at the bottom of the bounce, maintain it as the price tag rises, and sell just as the value is about to fall all over again. You could be ready to do this quite a few times, until finally the stock’s momentum drops. Just about any biotech IPO was a huge success back in the 2001-2006 a long time. So when choosing to enter or not in this biotech IPO one really should not neglect that Anthera’s study do the job is not in excess of and there might be extra time to come in advance of the firm is capable to release any sensible and usable medication.

It is a simple fact that biotech market place has a short while ago shown some indications of movement and rebound but the traders are nevertheless cautious. Nonetheless if this comes about to be a thriving biotech IPO it could assist to whet investors’ appetite for biotech IPOs and their faith in the market place as a full. This kind of a good results could also show that investors are in truth inclined to take far more extended-term chance and could be a sign. On the day that this IPO gets helpful it is now obtainable to the general public who have the previous option of taking advantage of this. Now it is a privilege to get these shares and not a perfect.

Back in the stock industry dark ages of my earliest youth, it wasn’t deemed huge news when a organization completed its preliminary public offering (IPO).

Back in individuals stodgy, boring boring times, most traders needed to acquire stocks with a track record of tested earnings, that compensated dividends, that had a solid stability sheet, or which at least had effectively-established, brand name merchandise.

A little quantity is okay. You can anticipate that the organization founders may possibly want to draw out a fair quantity of cash with which to ultimately pay out off the credit score cards they used to finance its startup.

Nonetheless, if they’re offering off significant shares of the organization, that’s a red flag. If they want out, why need to you want in?

That’s an overview of the organization, its merchandise and marketplace. This need to not shock any individual and could essentially double by midyear.

Virtually any biotech IPO was a large accomplishment back again in the 2001-2006 a long time. Because the start off of the present-day downturn in the stock costs and stock indexes for about two a long time we have not witnessed any single productive biotech IPO. The credit score crunch adversely affected the Biotech industry.

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Importance of Fitness and Conception in Women

Television portrays the woman’s ability to conceive as a relatively easy objective to accomplish; however, the medical research and the rise in the use of the egg bank indicate otherwise. According to the medical research, there are approximately 7.3 million women between the ages of 15 to 44 that have trouble getting pregnant. Another 2.1 million married women within that same age group are also experiencing difficulties getting pregnant. Fertility problems in women are quite common; millions of women each year consider utilizing resources like an egg bank and various forms of fertility counseling.

Numerous studies show that there is a definite link between fitness and conception. Women in the process of trying to conceive, who may be using an egg bank , will have to revisit certain habits in order to improve chances for conception. Weight, diet, exercise and stress management all play a role in a woman’s ability to successfully conceive. While some factors like medical history or spontaneous abortion can affect a woman’s capacity to conceive, a healthy lifestyle can cancel out much of these variables.

Diet and infertility

According to a Harvard Nurses’ Health Study, diet affects fertility levels. The study included 18,000 women with infertility problems. Commercial fast food and other processed foods have been proven to affect fertility. The research recommends that foods high in trans fats should be avoided by women trying to conceive. Increasing the amount of vegetable protein in the diet is also recommended. Legumes are considered to be a viable source of protein, while animal-based proteins should be reduced by women struggling with fertility problems. Increasing dairy intake to at least one serving a day is encouraged by fertility experts. The study shows that refined carbohydrates increased the likelihood of infertility problems. This was attributed to the impact the refined carbohydrates have on the insulin levels in the body. Whole grain foods and brown rice are the best types of carbohydrates for women because they have less of an impact on the insulin levels. Dietary changes may pay off for women trying to conceive.

Weight and infertility

Weight also plays an important role in infertility. According to fertility experts, women with a body mass index (BMI) between the ranges 20-24 have a better chance of conception. Infertility in men can increase by 10% with obesity, the European Commission says. Obesity can impact the hormone levels in women, causing certain types of infertility problems. If visiting an egg bank , it is likely that one will have to undergo an infertility work-up to determine whether or not the thyroid or any other health challenges exist that may be affecting the woman’s ability to conceive. Obesity in women can contribute to conditions such as polycystic ovaries, excessive estrogen or menstrual problems. A recent report by the European Commission, a reduction in weight by between five to ten percent can improve fertility levels in both men and women. A small reduction or increase in weight affects the fertility levels in both men and women.

Exercise and infertility

Some experts recommend that women who exercise regularly are less likely to experience fertility problems. By exercising just 30 minutes each day, a woman can improve fertility conditions related to issues with ovulation. Finding the balance for the appropriate amount of exercise is an important factor. Women who exercise more than seven hours a week are more likely to have a difficult time conceiving. Some studies show that 40 percent of women that exercise too often can experience difficulties with conception. Women undergoing fertility counseling and using an egg donor bank may experience poor results if exercising more than four hours a week. Too much exercise can have an effect on the progesterone and other hormone levels in the body. Rigorous exercise routines can be modified by incorporating more low impact aerobic activity. Adding an exercise routine for women with a sedentary lifestyle can improve a woman’s chances of conceiving.

The University of Surrey Research showed that couples that made moderate dietary and lifestyle changes experienced an 80 percent success rate in conception. The frustration often experienced by women trying to conceive can be overwhelming, but much of the issues with conceptions can be identified through fertility counseling. Small, incremental changes in weight, diet and exercise habits can really improve the overall outcome for couples trying to conceive. Never has there ever been more technology in the area of medicine available to women having difficulty conceiving. Considerable advancements in the area of women’s health are now used to help women with infertility. Before ruling out the possibility of ever becoming parent, women are encouraged to explore any and all options available to them.

Julie Collins writes about infertility issues that people may face today, and the possibility of conceiving with the help of an egg bank. Always looking for leaders in the IVF industry to refer friends and family, she ends up sending them to http://www.myeggbank.com more often than not.

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Importance Of Fitness And Conception in Women

Television portrays the womans ability to conceive as a relatively easy objective to accomplish; however, the medical research and the rise in the use of the egg bank indicate otherwise. According to the medical research, there are approximately 7.3 million women between the ages of 15 to 44 that have trouble getting pregnant. Another 2.1 million married women within that same age group are also experiencing difficulties getting pregnant. Fertility problems in women are quite common; millions of women each year consider utilizing resources like an egg bank and various forms of fertility counseling.

Numerous studies show that there is a definite link between fitness and conception. Women in the process of trying to conceive, who may be using an egg bank , will have to revisit certain habits in order to improve chances for conception. Weight, diet, exercise and stress management all play a role in a womans ability to successfully conceive. While some factors like medical history or spontaneous abortion can affect a womans capacity to conceive, a healthy lifestyle can cancel out much of these variables.

Diet and infertility

According to a Harvard Nurses Health Study, diet affects fertility levels. The study included 18,000 women with infertility problems. Commercial fast food and other processed foods have been proven to affect fertility. The research recommends that foods high in trans fats should be avoided by women trying to conceive. Increasing the amount of vegetable protein in the diet is also recommended. Legumes are considered to be a viable source of protein, while animal-based proteins should be reduced by women struggling with fertility problems. Increasing dairy intake to at least one serving a day is encouraged by fertility experts. The study shows that refined carbohydrates increased the likelihood of infertility problems. This was attributed to the impact the refined carbohydrates have on the insulin levels in the body. Whole grain foods and brown rice are the best types of carbohydrates for women because they have less of an impact on the insulin levels. Dietary changes may pay off for women trying to conceive.

Weight and infertility

Weight also plays an important role in infertility. According to fertility experts, women with a body mass index (BMI) between the ranges 20-24 have a better chance of conception. Infertility in men can increase by 10% with obesity, the European Commission says. Obesity can impact the hormone levels in women, causing certain types of infertility problems. If visiting an egg bank , it is likely that one will have to undergo an infertility work-up to determine whether or not the thyroid or any other health challenges exist that may be affecting the womans ability to conceive. Obesity in women can contribute to conditions such as polycystic ovaries, excessive estrogen or menstrual problems. A recent report by the European Commission, a reduction in weight by between five to ten percent can improve fertility levels in both men and women. A small reduction or increase in weight affects the fertility levels in both men and women.

Exercise and infertility

Some experts recommend that women who exercise regularly are less likely to experience fertility problems. By exercising just 30 minutes each day, a woman can improve fertility conditions related to issues with ovulation. Finding the balance for the appropriate amount of exercise is an important factor. Women who exercise more than seven hours a week are more likely to have a difficult time conceiving. Some studies show that 40 percent of women that exercise too often can experience difficulties with conception. Women undergoing fertility counseling and using an egg donor bank may experience poor results if exercising more than four hours a week. Too much exercise can have an effect on the progesterone and other hormone levels in the body. Rigorous exercise routines can be modified by incorporating more low impact aerobic activity. Adding an exercise routine for women with a sedentary lifestyle can improve a womans chances of conceiving.

The University of Surrey Research showed that couples that made moderate dietary and lifestyle changes experienced an 80 percent success rate in conception. The frustration often experienced by women trying to conceive can be overwhelming, but much of the issues with conceptions can be identified through fertility counseling. Small, incremental changes in weight, diet and exercise habits can really improve the overall outcome for couples trying to conceive. Never has there ever been more technology in the area of medicine available to women having difficulty conceiving. Considerable advancements in the area of womens health are now used to help women with infertility. Before ruling out the possibility of ever becoming parent, women are encouraged to explore any and all options available to them.

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Leopard Safari Animal Car Mirror Fuzzy Dice – Tan & Black – Pair

  • Fuzzy Dice designed to hang inside an automobile.
  • Also great for home, office, etc.
  • Plush fabric with printed designs.
  • There are 2 dice which measure approximately 2 1/2″ square each
  • Coordinates with our other LEOPARD Auto Accessories such as Seat Covers & Floor Mats.

LEOPARD Animal Print Fuzzy Dice. Size approximately 2 1/2″ square each cube, high quality plush. Includes attached black cord for hanging.

Buy Now!

List Price:
Price: $ 2.24

Semiconductor Jobs In The Manufacturing Industry in Service


The manufacturing industry currently holds the biggest share of employees in the US workforce. Approximately one-third of all employees in the US work in manufacturing factories and companies. Manufacturing jobs include chemical processing, plastic manufacturing, and gadget assembly. The industrys reach includes other sectors like energy, transportation and communication, metalworking, construction, and semiconductor.
One of the biggest manufacturing sectors is the semiconductor sector. Semiconductor companies produce electronic, chemical, and mechanical products. In New York, semiconductor plants manufacture power management circuits, audio amplifiers, communication interface products, display drivers, and data conversion programs. They produce gadgets and home appliances. These companies meet the populations demand for electronics. Apparently, the most in-demand electronic products are computers and mobile phones.
The semiconductor industry produces chemical and mechanical products. Chemical products include formulas for the food and beverage market. On the other hand, mechanical products are composed of factory machines and automotive engines. Semiconductor plants manufacture two types of machines: manual and digital. These machines are produced for industrial factories. Likewise, they produce automotive parts like radiators, bumpers, AC condensers, and braking systems.
There are various positions for semiconductor jobs. These are mostly comprised of engineering and electrician posts. Engineering positions in semiconductor factories are field service, site service, installation, and process. Technician positions are composed of facilities and gas and chemical services. They also have pump and abatement technicians. Factories have material coordinators. Material coordinators oversee the entire production process. They coordinate with suppliers for raw materials. They request delivery of raw materials from suppliers to manufacturing factories.
In the United States and England, several factories need the services of field service engineers. A field service engineer provides technical support in testing installation plants. They review engine framework and test functionality of new equipment. Field service engineers design test sequences, document test requirements, and assemble test hardware. They organize requirement reports for subsequent equipment testing. Presently, field service engineers are among the most in-demand semiconductor jobs.
Mechanical and controls engineering courses are the basic requirement for semiconductor jobs. Some companies prefer applicants with experience in electronics and vehicle manufacturing. For field service engineer positions, workers are allowed to work from home. However, they are on-call for customer service in different countries and regions.

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  • Die cut – not printed – will last for years – for exterior application
  • Can be applied to any smoth clean surface
  • Size is approximately 8-1/2″ wide by 2″ tall
  • application instructions included

This is a brand new top quality cad cut vinyl decal. Decal is solid one color, and die cut. The only thing to get applied is what’s shown in white. We strive for 5 stars on every order. Buy with confidence! We work hard to deliver a quality product promptly and guarantee satisfaction. If you have questions or concerns, please contact us at info@kickassdecals.com

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Price: $ 5.00

TV Lifts and Safety in Tv

Did you know that every day, approximately 40 young children are taken to hospital emergency rooms with injuries suffered as a result of a heavy piece of furniture falling on them? Furthermore, TV sets were the most common item associated with tip-over injuries to children.

Dr. Gary Smith, head of the Center for Injury Research and Policy at the Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio, used data from the Consumer Product Safety Commission to analyze injuries to children in the U.S. between 1990 and 2007. During that time, an estimated 264,200 furniture tip-over related-injuries occurred that required a trip to the emergency room. According to the study, published in Clinical Pediatrics, three-quarters of the injuries were to children 6-years-old and younger with 1- to 3-year-olds being the most vulnerable.

A TV tip-over typically occurs when a child attempts to climb onto furniture (or into a drawer of a dresser on which a TV sits), causing the furniture and/or the TV to fall onto the child. The child may also attempt to grab a toy from the top of a TV, or to change a DVD in a player on the TV, causing those items to fall.

Skull fracture is a common type of injury from a falling TV, which can lead to a range of short-term, long-term, or lifelong disabilities, many of which require rehabilitation. They can include problems with bladder or bowel control, lessened cognitive ability, and lessened ability to bathe, dress, walk, eat independently, hear, see, speak, or feel (due to nerve damage).

If this information is alarming to you, it should be. But there are things you can do to protect your children, as well as any beloved family member – including the four-legged ones!

TV lift cabinets and consoles are a beautifully decorative and safe alternative to the dangerous TV stand.

With a remote control, the TV (and all of the equipment that accompanies it – cable box, DVD player, cords and wires, etc.) can be “lifted” from the cabinet/console when you are ready to use them. More importantly, however, is that they “disappear” back into the cabinet when TV time is over, keeping both your investment and your family safe and secure.

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General Motors

Company overview

General Motors GMT800 truck assembly line.

In 2009, General Motors employs approximately 244,500 people around the world. The Renaissance Center located in Detroit, Michigan, United States, is the global headquarters of General Motors. In 2008, GM sold 8.35 million cars and trucks globally. GM is the majority shareholder in GM Daewoo Auto & Technology Co. of South Korea and has collaborations with Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation of China, AvtoVAZ of Russia, and most recently, UzAvtoSanoat of Uzbekistan. GM has had collaborations with various automakers including Fiat (see GM/Fiat Premium platform) and Ford Motor Company.[citation needed] GM retains various stakes in different automakers. General Motors’ best success internationally has unquestionbly been its performance in China, GM sales rose 66.9% in 2009, selling 1,830,000 vehicles and accounting for 13.4% of the market.

GM received loans from European governments in 2009, and has reduced its ownership stake in European operations as part of its reorganization.” As of July 10, 2009, the new GM has over B in cash, with the company’s reorganized liability total of .8 B which includes .4 B to be paid to the Voluntary Employee Benefits Association (VEBA) trust, B to the U.S. and Canadian governments, and B in liabilities to suppliers and other bills. GM is slated to pay B to the VEBA trust in December 2009, with the remainder being paid in increments from 2012-19. GM isn’t required to make contributions to its pension fund until 2013, but it may elect to if needed, since the company contribued .2 B to its pension fund in 2003. Stock market conditions cause the fund value to fluctuate. In February 2009, GM’s combined pension fund had about B in assets, B in assets for hourly pensions and B in assets for salaried pensions. The domain name gm.com attracted at least 7 million visitors annually by 2008.

GM worldwide vehicle sales by country 2008

(thousands)

Rank

in GM

Country

Vehicle

sales

Market

share (%)

Rank

in GM

Country

Vehicle

sales

Market

share (%)

1

 United States

2,981

22.1%

9

 Australia

133

13.1%

2

 China

1,095

12.0%

10

 Republic of Korea

117

9.7%

3

 Brazil

549

19.5%

11

 France

114

4.4%

4

 United Kingdom

384

15.4%

12

 Spain

107

7.8%

5

 Canada

359

21.4%

13

 Argentina

95

15.5%

6

 Russia

338

11.1%

14

 Venezuela

91

33.3%

7

 Germany

300

8.8%

15

 Colombia

80

36.3%

8

 Mexico

212

19.8%

16

 India

66

3.3%

Top 4 markets/regions by vehicle sales in 2008 (thousands)

1

North America

3,552

21.9%

3

European Union

905

12.3%

2

China

1,095

12.0%

4

South America

815

20.8%

Structure

See also: Cadillac, Buick, GMC (automobile), Chevrolet, List of GM factories, and List of GM engines

General Motors is structured into the following operating groups:

Group

Number of employees

March 2009

GMAP (GM Asia-Pacific)

33,000

GME (GM Europe)

55,000

GM LAAM (GM Latin America, Africa and the Middle East)

33,000

GMNA (GM North America)

112,000

Other operations

2,000

Total number of employees

235,000

Management

The Renaissance Center in Detroit, Michigan, is the world headquarters of General Motors.

On July 23, 2009, GM announced its new Board of Directors: Daniel F. Akerson, David Bonderman, Robert D. Krebs, Patricia F. Russo and Ed Whitacre (GM Chairman & Interim CEO) Board members who are not GM employees will be paid US0,000 annually.

As of December 1, 2009, The General Motors Board Of Directors accepted Frederick Henderson’s resignation. In January 2010, chairman Ed Whitacre was appointed permanent CEO after previously serving in an interim capacity.

On December 4, 2009, GM announced leadership changes in a press release.

Edward Whitacre, Jr. – Chairman of the Board of the Directors and CEO

Robert A. Lutz – Vice Chairman, advisor on design and global product development

Chris Liddell – Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer

Thomas G. Stephens – Vice Chairman, Global Product Operations

Mark Reuss – President, GM North America

David N. Reilly – President, GM Europe

Timothy E. Lee – President, GM International Operations (Asia-Pacific, Latin America, Africa, and Middle East)

Ray Young – vice president, International Operations

Edward T. Welburn – Global Vice President of General Motors Design, current and only the sixth head designer.

For additional Senior Management see GM Senior Leadership Group

General Motors is a conglomerate.

History

Main article: History of General Motors

General Motors was founded on September 16, 1908, in Flint, Michigan, as a holding company for Buick, then controlled by William C. Durant. It acquired Oldsmobile later that year. In 1909, Durant brought in Cadillac, Elmore, Oakland and several others. Also in 1909, General Motors acquired the Reliance Motor Truck Company of Owosso, Michigan, and the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac, Michigan, the predecessors of GMC Truck. Durant lost control of GM in 1910 to a bankers’ trust, because of the large amount of debt taken on in its acquisitions coupled with a collapse in new vehicle sales. A few years later, Durant started the Chevrolet Motor car company and through this he secretly purchased a controlling interest in GM. Durant took back control of the company after one of the most dramatic proxy wars in American business history. Durant then reorganized General Motors Company into General Motors Corporation. Shortly after, he again lost control, this time for good, after the new vehicle market collapsed. Alfred P. Sloan was picked to take charge of the corporation and led it to its post war global dominance. This unprecedented growth of GM would last into the early 1980s when it employed 349,000 workers and operated 150 assembly plants.

GM previously led in global sales for 77 consecutive years (1931 to 2008), longer than any other automaker.

Chapter 11 reorganization

Main article: General Motors Chapter 11 reorganization

On July 10, 2009, a new entity, NGMCO Inc. purchased the ongoing operations and trademarks from General Motors Corporation. The purchasing company in turn changed its name from NGMCO Inc. to General Motors Company, marking the emergence of a new operation from the “pre-packaged” Chapter 11 reorganization. Under the reorganization process, termed a 363 sale (for Section 363 which is located in Title 11, Chapter 3, Subchapter IV of the United States Code, a part of the Bankruptcy Code), the purchaser of the assets of a company in bankruptcy proceedings is able to obtain approval for the purchase from the court prior to the submission of a re-organization plan, free of liens and other claims. It used in most Chapter 11 cases that involve a sale of property or other assets. This process is typical of large organizations with complex branding and intellectual property rights issues upon exiting bankruptcy. The new company plans to issue an initial public offering (IPO) of stock in 2010.

GM’s remaining pre-petition creditors’ claims are paid from the remaining assets of Motors Liquidation Company, the new name of the former General Motors Corporation, although the directors of that company believe its debts far outweigh its assets. This means that while the former GM’s bondholders may recover a small portion of their investment, former GM shareholders (now shareholders of Motors Liquidation Company) will likely not receive anything.

Also on July 10, 2009, GM announced plans to trim its U.S. workforce by 20,000 employees as part of its reorganization by the end of 2009 due to economic conditions.

The following table is a comparison (estimates) of the new GM and the old GM:

Old GM (before July 10, 2009)

New GM (after July 10, 2009)

Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMDaewoo (48.2%), GMC, Holden, Hummer, Oldsmobile, Opel, Pontiac, Saab, Saturn, Vauxhall

Brands

Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMDaewoo (70.1%), GMC, Holden, Opel, Vauxhall

5,900

US Dealerships

3,600

Common shareholders, bondholders and secured creditors

Ownership

The United States Treasury, the Crown in Right of Canada, Old GM bondholders, and UAW union

47

US Plants

34

US.7 B

Debt

US B

91,000

US employees

68,500

North America

Core brand focus

In North America, GM will focus primarily on its four core brands Chevrolet, Cadillac, Buick, and GMC while selling, discontinuing, or scaling back its other brands. The White House characterized the GM restructuring as a shift toward a new leaner, greener GM, which will aim to break even with annual sales much lower than previously stated. President Obama declared that the restructuring “will mark the end of an old GM, and the beginning of a new GM; a new GM that can produce the high-quality, safe, and fuel-efficient cars of tomorrow; that can lead America towards an energy independent future; and that is once more a symbol of America’s success.”

In the middle of 2005, GM announced that its corporate chrome emblem “Mark of Excellence” would begin appearing on all recently introduced and all-new 2006 model vehicles produced and sold in North America. However, in 2009 the “New GM” reversed this, saying that emphasis on its four core brands would dictate downplaying the GM name.

Production of SUVs and trucks vs. cars

In the late 1990s, the U.S. economy was on the rise and GM and Ford gained market share producing enormous profits primarily from the sale of light trucks and sport-utility vehicles.

Following the September 11 attacks, a severe stock market decline caused a pension and benefit fund underfunding crisis. GM began its Keep America Rolling campaign, which boosted sales, and other auto makers were forced to follow suit. The U.S. automakers saw sales increase to leverage costs as gross margins deteriorated.

In 2004, GM redirected resources from the development of new sedans to an accelerated refurbishment of their light trucks and SUVs for introduction as 2007 models in early 2006. Shortly after this decision, fuel prices increased by over 50% and this in turn affected both the trade-in value of used vehicles and the perceived desirability of new offerings in these market segments. The current marketing plan is to tout these revised vehicles extensively as offering the best fuel economy in their class (of vehicle). GM claims its hybrid trucks will have fuel economy improvements of 25%.

Sales

U.S. sales figures

Calendar Year

Total U.S. sales

Chg/yr.

1998

4,603,991

1999

5,017,150

9.0%

2000

4,953,163

1.3%

2001

4,904,015

1.0%

2002

4,858,705

0.9%

2003

4,756,403

2.1%

2004

4,707,416

1.0%

2005

4,517,730

4.0%

2006

4,124,645

8.7%

2007

3,866,620

6.3%

2008

2,980,688

22.9%

2009

2,084,492

30.1%

In 2005, GM promoted sales through an “employee discount” to all buyers. Marketed as the lowest possible price, GM cleared an inventory buildup of 2005 models to make way for its 2006 lineup.

SUV sales

In 2008, rapidly rising gasoline prices resulted in a 30% drop-off of sales of SUVs. These had been GM’s most profitable product, often returning profits of US,000 to US,000 per vehicle. Sales of SUVs had been decreasing since 2004, and in May 2008, a US billion investment program for a new SUV platform, the CXX program, was canceled. During the first 6 months of 2008, GM lost .8 billion; by late October, its stock had dropped 76%, and it was considering a merger with Chrysler. In only 12 months (October 2007-2008), GM sales in the US dropped 45 percent. GM’s concentration on SUVs as a profit center dated from the 1990s.

General Motors plant in (in Arlington, Texas) produces its largest SUVs. On Tuesday, December 23, 2008, the Janesville, Wisconsin plant, which produced the Chevrolet Tahoe, the Suburban, and the GMC Yukon, and the Moraine, Ohio plant which produced the Chevrolet Blazer and the GMC Envoy idled production. GM has yet to confirm future product plans for the idled facilities.

Small car sales

“As part of General Motors Company (GM)’s restructuring, it plans to revive one of its idled U.S. factories for the production of a small car (the factories under consideration included one in or near the cars in busville and Orion Township areas of Michigan, one in Wisconsin, and one in Tennessee; the factory in Michigan was ultimately selected to be revived, but only 1,200 out of a former 3,400 jobs will be left). The new small car will add to a group of small and fuel-efficient vehicles that the company is planning to roll out in the near future. The retooled plant will be capable of building 160,000 cars annually, including both small and compact vehicles.

Canada

In March 2005, the Canadian Crown-in-Council provided C0 million in incentives to General Motors for its Ontario plants to expand production and provide jobs, according to Jim Harris.[citation needed] Similar incentives were promised to non-North American auto companies like Toyota. Ontario Premier Dalton McGuinty, said the money pledged for the project by the provincial Crown of Ontario and by the federal government was well spent.

China

The Buick brand is especially strong in China, led by the Buick Excelle subcompact. The last emperor of China owned a Buick. The Cadillac brand was introduced in China in 2004, starting with imports from the United States. GM pushed the marketing of the Chevrolet brand in China in 2005 as well, moving the former Buick Sail to that marque. The company manufactures most of its China market vehicles locally through Shanghai GM, a joint venture with the Chinese company SAIC, which was created on March 25, 1997. The Shanghai GM plant was officially opened on December 15, 1998, when the first Chinese-built Buick came off the assembly line. The SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile joint-venture is also successfully selling trucks and vans under the Wuling marque (34% owned by GM).

GM plans to invest 0m to create a research facility in Shanghai to develop hybrid cars and alternative fuel vehicles.[citation needed]

Labor relations

Main article: 2007 General Motors strike

On September 24, 2007 General Motors workers represented by the United Auto Workers union went on the first nationwide strike against GM since 1970. The ripple effect of the strike reached into Canada the following day as two car assembly plants and a transmission facility were forced to close. Overnight a tentative agreement was reached, however, and UAW officials declared the end of the strike in a news conference at 4 a.m. on September 26. By the following day, all GM workers in both countries were back to work.

A new labor contract was ratified by UAW members exactly one week after the tentative agreement was reached, passing by a majority 62% vote. In the contract are several product and employment guarantees stretching well into the next decade. One of GM’s key future products, the Chevy Volt, was promised to the GM Poletown/Detroit-Hamtramck plant in 2010. Also included is a VEBA (Voluntary Employee Beneficiary Association) which will transfer retiree health care obligations to the UAW by 2010. This eliminates more than billion from GM’s healthcare tab. It will be funded by billion in cash and .4 billion in GM stock paid to the UAW over the next four years of the contract. It also eliminates 70% of the labor cost gap with GM’s Japanese rivals.

A strike at American Axle and Manufacturing Holdings Inc. will result in lost production of an additional 230,000 vehicles in the second quarter, with an estimated .8 billion impact on earnings before tax, and a total strike cost of .81 billion.

Together with the United Auto Workers, GM created a joint venture dedicated to the quality of life needs of employees in 1985. The UAW-GM Center for human resources in Detroit is dedicated to providing GM salaried employees and GM UAW members programs and services related to medical care, diversity issues, education, training and tuition assistance, as well as programs related to work and family concerns, in addition to the traditional union-employer health and safety partnership.

2008 Canadian Auto Workers bargaining

In an unusual move, GM Canada and the Canadian Auto Workers (CAW) union ratified a new collective bargaining contract in May 2008, four months before the expiration of the existing contract. As part of the agreement, among other production commitments, GM pledged to maintain production at the Oshawa, Ontario pickup truck plant. Less than three weeks later, GM announced that rising gasoline prices and falling truck sales made it necessary to close certain truck and SUV plants, including the Oshawa pickup plant. In response, CAW members staged a 12-day blockade of the GM Canada headquarters. After further discussions with the CAW, GM agreed to compensate workers at the truck plant, as well as making product commitments for the Oshawa car assembly plant.

Labor costs

GM announced elimination of lifetime health benefits for about 100,000 of its white collar retirees at the end of 2008.

Auto racing

General Motors has an extensive history in numerous forms of racing. In particular, the Chevrolet Corvette has long been popular and successful in international road racing. GM also is a supplier of racing components, such as engines, transmissions, and electronics equipments.

GM’s Oldsmobile Aurora engine platform was successful in the Indy Racing League (IRL) throughout the 1990s, winning many races in the small V-8 class. GM has also done much work in the development of electronics for GM auto racing. An unmodified Aurora V-8 in the Aerotech, captured 47 world records, including the record for speed endurance in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America. Recently, the Cadillac V-Series has entered motorsports racing. GM has also used many cars in the American racing series NASCAR. Currently the Chevrolet Impala is the only entry in the series but in the past the Pontiac Grand Prix, Buick Regal, Oldsmobile Cutlass, Chevrolet Lumina, Chevrolet Malibu, and the Chevrolet Monte Carlo were also used.

In touring cars (mainly in Europe), Vauxhall is a key player and former champion in the British Touring Car Championship (BTCC) series and competes with a Vauxhall Vectra in Super 2000 spec, although have announced plans to withdraw at the end of 2009. Opel used to participate in the DTM series and also in the 1980s in the World Rally Championship and other Rally Series with Group B Spec Opel Manta’s before this category of Rallying was banned. Chevrolet competes with a Chevrolet Cruze in the FIA World Touring Car Championship (WTCC). Tempus Sport and RML also compete with privately run Lacettis in the BTCC.

In Australia, there is the prestigious V8 Supercar Championship which is battled out by the two main rivals of Holden and Ford. The current Holden Racing Team cars are based on the Holden Commodore and run a 6.3-litre V8-cylinder engine producing 635 bhp (474 kW). These cars have a top speed of 294 km/h (183 mph) and run 0100 km/h in 3.8 seconds. The Holden Racing Team is Australia’s most successful team in Australian Touring Car History. In 2006 & 2007, the Drivers championship was won by the very closely linked HSV Dealer Team.

Alternative propulsion initiatives

The company has long worked on alternative-technology vehicles, and has recently led the industry with ethanol burning flexible-fuel vehicles that can run on either E85 (ethanol) or gasoline. The company was the first to use turbochargers and was an early proponent of V6 engines in the 1960s, but quickly lost interest as the muscle car race took hold. They demonstrated gas turbine vehicles powered by kerosene, an area of interest throughout the industry, but abandoned the alternative engine configuration in view of the 1973 oil crisis. In the 1970s and 1980s, GM pushed the benefits of diesel engines and cylinder deactivation technologies with disastrous results due to poor durability in the Oldsmobile diesels and drivability issues in the Cadillac V8-6-4 variable cylinder engines. In 1987, GM, in conjunction with AeroVironment, built the Sunraycer, which won the inaugural World Solar Challenge and was a showcase of advanced technology. Much of the technology from Sunraycer found its way into the Impact prototype electric vehicle (also built by Aerovironment) and was the predecessor to the General Motors EV1.

GM supported a compromise version of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard increase from 27 mpg-US (8.7 L/100 km; 32 mpg-imp) to 35 mpg-US (6.7 L/100 km; 42 mpg-imp), the first such increase in over 20 years.

Hybrid electric initiative

Main articles: Plug-in hybrid and Chevrolet Volt

Plug-in hybrid Chevrolet Volt.

Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid 2009.

In May 2004, GM delivered the world’s first full sized hybrid pickups, the 1/2-ton Silverado/Sierra. These hybrids did not use electrical energy for propulsion, like GM’s later designs. In 2005, the Opel Astra diesel Hybrid concept vehicle was introduced. The 2006 Saturn Vue Green Line was the first hybrid passenger vehicle from GM and is also a mild design. GM has hinted at new hybrid technologies to be employed that will be optimized for higher speeds in freeway driving.

GM currently offers two types of hybrid systems. The first type, used in the Saturn Vue, Saturn Aura, and Chevrolet Malibu, is what GM calls the BAS Hybrid system a type of mild hybrid which was canceled in 2009. The second hybrid drive system, co-developed with Daimler AG and BMW, is called a “Two-Mode Hybrid”. The two-mode is used by the Chevrolet Tahoe/GMC Yukon and will later be used on the Saturn Vue (cancelled), Cadillac Escalade, GM 1/2-ton pickups and possibly other vehicles.

GM’s current hybrid electric models:

2009 Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid (discontinued)

2009 Saturn Aura Green Line Hybrid (discontinued)

2009 GMC Yukon Hybrid

2009 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid (discontinued)

2009 Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid

2009 Cadillac Escalade Hybrid

2009 Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid

2009 GMC Sierra Hybrid

GM has recently introduced the concept cars Chevrolet Volt and Opel Flextreme, which are electric vehicles with back-up generators, powered by gasoline, E85, or fuel cells. According to GM, a production Chevrolet Volt will be available by late 2010 as a 2011 model.

The GM Magic Bus is a hybrid powered bus.

GM sold 843 hybrids of all types during the first quarter of 2008, according to the industry newspaper Automotive News. Compare that with Ford, which sold 5,225 hybrids during that time. CSM Worldwide, expects GM to seriously increase its hybrid output, turning the automaker into a serious contender within the next few years. He expects it to produce 40,000 to 50,000 hybrids this year, more than doubling last year’s production.

All-electric vehicles

Main article: General Motors EV1

Electric car EV1 shown plugged into charging station

GM was the first American company (in the modern era) to release an all-electric automobile. In 1990, GM debuted the revolutionary “Impact” concept car at the Los Angeles Auto Show. It was the first car with zero-emissions marketed in the US in over three decades. The Impact was eventually produced as the EV1 for the 1996 model year. It was available through dealers located in only a few regions (e.g., California, Arizona, Georgia). Vehicles were leased, rather than sold, to individuals. In 2003 GM decided to cease production of the vehicles.

General Motors has announced that it is building a prototype two-seat electric vehicle with Segway. An early prototype of the Personal Urban Mobility and Accessibility vehicleubbed Project P.U.M.A. — will be shown off in New York a day ahead of the press previews for the 2009 New York International Auto Show.

Plug-in hybrids

Main article: Plug-in hybrid

On September 16, 2008, as part of its 100th anniversary celebration, GM unveiled the “production” version of the Chevrolet Volt at the GM headquarters in Detroit.

Battery packs for electric vehicles

GM will build battery packs with LG Chem in Michigan. GM also plans to build an automotive battery laboratory in Michigan. GM will take full responsibility for all the battery management systems and power electronics. The company will build a new factory in Michigan, but a specific site has yet to be announced, in part because negotiations are ongoing with state and local authorities on the usual financial incentives and approvals. LG Chem’s US subsidiary, Compact Power of Troy, Michigan, has been building the prototype packs for the development vehicles and will continue to provide integration support and act as a liaison for the program.

Hydrogen initiative

Sequel, a fuel cell-powered vehicle from GM.

GM has prided its research and prototype development of hydrogen powered vehicles, to be produced in early 2010, using a support infrastructure still in a prototype state. The economic feasibility of the technically challenging hydrogen car, and the low-cost production of hydrogen to fuel it, has also been discussed by other automobile manufacturers such as Ford and Chrysler.

In June 2007, Larry Burns, vice president of research and development, said he’s not yet willing to say exactly when hydrogen vehicles will be mass produced, but he said it should happen before 2020, the year many experts have predicted. He said “I sure would be disappointed if we weren’t there” before 2020.

Flexible-fuel vehicles

North American market

The E85, FlexFuel, Chevrolet Impala LT 2009.

GM produces several flexible-fuel vehicles that can operate on E85 ethanol fuel or gasoline, or any blend of both. Since 2006 GM started featuring a bright yellow gas cap to remind drivers of the E85 capabilities, and also using badging with the text “Flexfuel/E85 Ethanol” to clearly mark the car as an E85 FFV.

GM is the North American leader in E85 flex fuel vehicles, with over 3 million FlexFuel vehicles on the road in the U.S. As of 2009, GM offers 18 ethanol-enabled FlexFuel cars and trucks in the US, and produce more than one million new FlexFuel vehicles. GM’s goal is to have half of their annual vehicle production be E85 or biodiesel capable by 2012.

Despite the significant amount of flex fuel vehicles sold in the US and Canada, the percentage of users actually using ethanol has been very low as many owners are not aware they owned an E85 flex or not enough E85 fueling stations are available nearby, except for the Corn Belt states, where there is a great concentration of E85 stations, as most corn ethanol is produced there. A 2005 survey found that 68% of American flex-fuel car owners were not aware they owned an E85 flex. Several critics have argued that GM and the other American automakers have been producing E85 flex models motivated by a loophole in the CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) requirements, that allows for a fuel economy credit for every flex-fuel vehicle sold, whether or not in practice these vehicles are fueled with E85. This loophole might have allowed the car industry to meet the CAFE targets in fuel economy just by spending between USD 100 to USD 200 that it cost to turn a conventional vehicle into a flex-fuel, without investing in new technology to improve fuel economy, and saving them the potential fines for not achieving that standard in a given model year.

Brazilian market

Brazilian Chevrolet Celta FlexPower.

GM’s largest overseas subsidiary is General Motors do Brasil, which started producing flexible-fuel vehicles since its inception in the Brazilian market in 2003. Like other Brazilian flex-fuel vehicles, GM’s flex fuel cars and light-duty trucks are optimized to run on any mix of E20-E25 gasoline and up to 100% hydrous ethanol fuel (E100). GM launched its first flex fuel in June 2003, the Chevrolet Corsa 1.8 FlexPower, just two months after the first flex car was launched by another Brazilian carmaker.

GM do Brasil also introduced the MultiPower engine in August 2004, which was capable of using natural gas (CNG), ethanol and gasoline (E20-E25 blend) as fuel, and it was used in the multifuel Chevrolet Astra 2.0 model 2005, aimed at the local taxi cab market. The Brazilian GM Powertrain unit also developed the EconoFlex technology, used for the first time in the Chevrolet Prisma 1.4, which allows the flex fuel engine to maximize fuel economy and power.

Due to the success and rapid consumer acceptance of the flex versions, GM sold 192,613 flex vehicles and 135,636 gasoline-powered automobiles in 2005, jumping to 501,681 flex-fuel vehicles, while only 949 cars and 6,834 light trucks powered by gasoline were sold in 2007, and reaching new car sales of 535.454 flex fuels in 2008, representing 97 percent of all cars and light duty trucks sold in that year.

Philanthropy

Since 1996, General Motors has been the exclusive source of funding for Safe Kids USA’s “Safe Kids Buckle Up” program, a national initiative to ensure child automobile safety through education and inspection. Through 2002, the Pace Awards program led by GM, EDS, and SUN Microsystems, gave over .2 billion of in-kind contributions which includes computers to over 18 universities to support engineering education. In 2009, the GM led group has helped the Pace Awards program worldwide. General Motors is a leading contributor to charity. In 2004, GM gave ,200,000 in cash contributions and ,200,000 in-kind donations to charitable causes.

Politics

In the 2008 election cycle, General Motors contributed 2,414, with 52% of that amount going to the Democrats and 48% to the Republicans. GM’s Saturn division put up a display at the 2009 Detroit Auto Show congratulating Barack Obama on his election as the first African-American president of the United States.

Environmental issues

In the middle of 1999, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) removed 23,000 cubic yards (18,000 m3) of contaminated sediments and soil from the General Motors site in Massena, New York for disposal at a licensed facility in Utah. The amount contained 13,000 cubic yards (9,900 m3) of contaminated sediments dredged from the St. Lawrence River. The sediments had been stored on the site since 1995. There was also 10,000 cubic yards (7,600 m3) of contaminated sludge from the active wastewater treatment plant on the General Motors property. The Political Economy Research Institute ranks GM 18th among corporations emitting airborne pollutants in the United States. The ranking is based on the emission quantity (8 million pounds in 2005) and toxicity.

In September 2006, the state of California filed suit against General Motors, Chrysler, Nissan, Toyota, Honda, and Ford. The companies were accused of producing cars that emitted over 289 million metric tons of carbon per year in the United States, accounting for nearly 20% of carbon emissions in the United States and 30% of carbon emissions in California. This lawsuit was dismissed by a judge in September 2007.

The Union of Concerned Scientists ranked General Motors as seventh out of the eight world’s largest automakers in 2007 for environmental performance. The report noted that GM manufactured the most vehicles achieving 30 mpg-US (7.8 L/100 km; 36 mpg-imp) or better, but also the most vehicles under 15 mpg-US (16 L/100 km; 18 mpg-imp).

Brands and subsidiaries

Current brands (as of 2010)

Marque

Years used

Markets

Buick

1908resent

North America, China, Israel, Taiwan

Cadillac

1909resent

Global (except South America, India, SE Asia, Australia)

GMC

1912resent

North America, Middle East

Chevrolet

1917resent

Global (except Australia)

Vauxhall

1925resent

United Kingdom

Opel

1929resent

Europe (except UK), Russia, South Africa, Middle East, Singapore

Holden

1948resent

Australia, New Zealand, Middle East (not Kuwait), South Korea, South Africa, UK

Daewoo

2002resent

South Korea, Latin America, Europe

Defunct brands

Welch (19031911)

Rainier (19051911)

Welch-Marquette (see Marquette)

Cartercar (19051915)

Elmore (19091912)

Rapid Truck (19091912)

Reliance Truck (19091912)

Welch-Detroit (19101911)

Marquette (1912)

Peninsular (1912) (see Marquette)

Samson Tractor (19171922)

Scripps-Booth (19171923)

Marquette (1930)

Oakland (19091931)

Viking (19291931)

LaSalle (19271940)

McLaughlin (19181942)

Yellow Coach (19251943)

Beaumont (19661969)

Envoy (19601970)

Acadian (19621971)

Ranger (19681976)

Bedford Vehicles (19291987)

General Motors Diesel Division (19381987)

Passport (19881991)

Asna (1993)

Geo (19891997)

Oldsmobile (18932004)

Pontiac (1926-2010)

Saturn (19852010)

Hummer (19922010), after a failed sale to Sichuan Tengzhong Heavy Industrial Machinery Company Ltd

Sold brands

Frigidaire (19191979), sold to Ohio-based White Consolidated Industries

Lotus (19861993), sold to Luxembourgish A.C.B.N. Holdings S.A.

Saab (1989-2010), sold to Dutch supercar manufacturer Spyker Cars NV

Former affiliates

Fiat (20002005), GM owned 20% at one time with put option

Fuji Heavy Industries, manufacturer of Subaru (19992006), GM owned 20% at one time

Isuzu (19712006), GM owned 49% at one time

Suzuki (19812008), GM owned over 20% at one time

Spin-offs

GM Defense 19502003 was once part of General Motors Diesel Division and as General Dynamics Land Systems division of General Dynamics

Electro Motive Division of General Motors was also once part of General Motors Diesel Division and now known as Electro-Motive Diesel

Detroit Diesel sold to Penske Corporation; broken up and portion sold to the former Daimler-Chrysler AG (now Daimler AG); now part of Daimler AG

Transit division was sold to Motor Coach Industries and Transportation Manufacturing Corporation

RTS and Classic bus rights owned by MCI And TMC were sold off to Nova Bus; now produced by Millennium Transit Services

Diesel Division of General Motors of Canada Limited spun off and later acquired by General Motors Canada as Diesel Division of General Motors of Canada Limited

EDS Electronic Data Systems

Hughes Electronics (Now The DirecTV Group[Liberty Media]

1999 GM spun off its parts making operations as Delphi

Subsidiaries

AC Delco

Adam Opel GmbH

Vauxhall Motors

GMAC (less than 10%)

General Motors Canada

General Motors do Brasil

General Motors India

Global Hybrid Cooperation

General Motors South Africa

GM-AvtoVAZ

GM Daewoo (70.1%)

General Motors Europe

GM Holden Ltd

GM Performance Division

GM Powertrain Europe

OnStar

Shanghai GM (50%)

SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile Joint venture in China.

See also

Companies portal

Automotive industry

People

Wayne Cherry

John DeLorean

Pierre S. du Pont

William C. Durant

Harley Earl

Robert Lutz

Irving Jacob Reuter

Alfred P. Sloan

Ray G. Young

Books and films

Final Offer 1985 Canadian TV documentary that shows the 1984 GM contract negotiations that resulted in the union split of the Canadian arm of the UAW.

Roger & Me 1989 American documentary film directed by independent filmmaker/author Michael Moore (his first). The film criticizes General Motors for closing down its factories in Moore’s home-town of Flint, Michigan, despite record profits. After many Flint residents lose jobs at GM, Moore claims, the town descends into economic chaos.

Who Killed the Electric Car? 2006 documentary film written and directed by Chris Paine that explores the creation, limited commercialization, and subsequent destruction of the battery electric vehicle in the U.S., specifically the General Motors EV1 of the 1990s.

Industry associations

Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers

United States Council for Automotive Research

Competitions

EcoCAR

Lists

List of GM engines

List of GM factories

List of GM platforms

List of GM transmissions

Category

GM vehicles by brand

Lawsuits

GM Instrument Cluster Settlement

References

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^ “GM Cancels All Future Full-Size SUVs”. Worldcarfans. http://www.worldcarfans.com/9081028.003/gm-cancels-all-future-full-size-suvs. Retrieved 2009-06-01. 

^ 19:57:37. “@Mail.Ru”. Auto.mail.ru. http://auto.mail.ru/text.html?id=27985. Retrieved 2009-06-01. 

^ Vlasic, Bill; Nick Bunkley (2008-10-25). “General Motors, Driven to the Brink”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/26/business/26jane.html. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 

^ Bunkley, Nick; Bill Vlasic (2008-12-23). “Nearly the End of the Line for S.U.V.”. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/24/business/24auto.html. Retrieved 2008-12-23. 

^ “Restructured GM to Build a New Small Car in the United States”. United States Department of Energy. June 3, 2009. http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/news/news_detail.cfm/news_id=12550. 

^ “Canadian auto industry gets bailout too”. CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/americas/12/20/canada.auto.bailout/index.html. Retrieved 2009-07-13. 

^ 1:25 p.m. ET (2006-05-15). “In China, Buick bucks the trend – Nightly News with Brian Williams- msnbc.com”. MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12801549/ns/nightly_news_with_brian_williams/. Retrieved 2009-10-12. 

^ GM’s Cost – Auto News Report

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^ “GM Media Online”. Media.gm.com. 2008-06-03. . Retrieved 2009-06-01. 

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^ Thomas, Cal. “Cal Thomas Official Web Site – BREAKDOWN”. Calthomas.com. http://www.calthomas.com/index.php?news=2427. Retrieved 2009-06-01. 

^ America’s First Turbine Car

^ GM workers lobbying for less-stringent CAFE rule

^ Tom Higgs, “Patents General Motors”. October 17, 2008

^ “GM’s Hybrid Propulsion System for Transit Buses”. . Retrieved 2007-05-22. 

^ Valdes-Dapena, Peter GM gets on the hybrid highway, CNNMoney, April 23, 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-06.

^ “GM to roll out two-seat, urban electric prototype | detnews.com | The Detroit News”. detnews.com. . Retrieved 2009-06-01. 

^ “GM Media Online”. Media.gm.com. 2008-09-16. . Retrieved 2009-06-01. 

^ “EERE News: GM to Buy Lithium-Ion Batteries for the Chevy Volt from LG Chem”. Apps1.eere.energy.gov. 2009-01-14. . Retrieved 2009-06-01. 

^ Tom Krisher, “GM steps up work on hydrogen cars”, BusinessWeek. June 15, 2007

^ Ken Thomas (2007-05-07). “‘Flex-fuel’ vehicles touted”. USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/money/autos/environment/2007-05-05-ethanolvehicles_N.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 

^ Christine Gable and Scott Gable. “Yellow E85 gas cap”. About.com: Hybrid Cars & Alt Fuels. http://alternativefuels.about.com/od/vehiclebuyingguide/ig/Alt-fuels—New-York-Auto-Show/Yellow-E85-gas-cap.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-18. 

^ John Neff (2006-10-06). “More gas cap news: Chrysler going yellow for E85”. AutoBlog. http://www.autoblog.com/2006/08/10/more-gas-cap-news-chrysler-going-yellow-for-e85/. Retrieved 2008-10-08. 

^ Sam Abuelsamid (2007-03-28). “AFVI: Ford confirms that all 2008 police interceptors will be flex-fuel”. AutobogGreen. http://www.autobloggreen.com/2007/03/28/afvi-ford-confirms-that-all-2008-police-interceptors-will-be-fl/. Retrieved 2008-10-08. 

^ Christine Gable and Scott Gable. “2008 Chevrolet Silverado 1500 4WD LT2 flex-fuel truck test drive”. About.com: Hybrid Cars & Alt Fuels. http://alternativefuels.about.com/od/2008flexfuelreviews/fr/08SilveradoFFV_2.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-03. 

^ Christine Gable and Scott Gable. “2007 Chevrolet Suburban 4WD 1500 LT test drive”. About.com: Hybrid Cars & Alt Fuels. http://alternativefuels.about.com/od/flexfuelffvreviews/fr/2007Suburban_2.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-03. 

^ General Motors | Fuel Economy & Alternative Fuels – E85 Ethanol

^ National Renewable Energy Laboratory USDoE (2007-09-17). “Alternative and Advanced Vehicles: Flexible Fuel Vehicles”. Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center. http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/flexible_fuel.html. Retrieved 2008-08-19. 

^ a b Sperling, Daniel and Deborah Gordon (2009). Two billion cars: driving toward sustainability. Oxford University Press, New York. pp. 73743. ISBN 978-0-19-537664-7. 

^ a b Goettemoeller, Jeffrey; Adrian Goettemoeller (2007). Sustainable Ethanol: Biofuels, Biorefineries, Cellulosic Biomass, Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and Sustainable Farming for Energy Independence. Prairie Oak Publishing, Maryville, Missouri. pp. 5661. ISBN 978-0-9786293-0-4. 

^ a b Alexei Barrionuevo and Micheline Maynard (2006-08-31). “Dual-Fuel Vehicles Open Mileage Loophole for Carmakers”. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/31/business/31loophole.html?emc=eta1. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 

^ Inslee, Jay; Bracken Hendricks (2007). Apollo’s Fire. Island Press, Washington, D.C.. pp. 153155, 160161. ISBN 978-1-59726-175-3.  See Chapter 6. Homegrown Energy.

^ “Bumpy ride for biofuels”. Economist. 2008-01-18. http://www.economist.com/science/displaystory.cfm?story_id=10551762. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 

^ “Volkswagen to stop making gas-only cars for Brazil”. Automotive News. 2006-03-23. . Retrieved 2008-10-18. 

^ “Chevrolet Apresenta seu Novo Motor 1.8 Flexpower, mais Potente e Econmico” (in Portuguese). 2005-09-22. http://www.jornalexpress.com.br/noticias/detalhes.php?id_jornal=9095&id_noticia=2275. Retrieved 2009-04-18. 

^ GNVNews (November 2006). “Montadores Investem nos Carros GNV” (in Portuguese). Institutio Brasileiro de Petroleo e Gas. . Retrieved 2009-04-19. 

^ “Astra lder no segmento dos compactos em 2004: As verses do Chevrolet Astra 2005” (in Portuguese). Journal Express. 2005-01-18. http://www.jornalexpress.com.br/noticias/detalhes.php?id_jornal=9095&id_noticia=1703. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 

^ “1.4 Econo.Flex, o motor que pulsa forte no corao do Prisma, o novo sed Chevrolet” (in Portuguese). Chevrolet (Brazil). . Retrieved 2009-04-18. 

^ “Tabela 08 – Vendas Atacado Mercado Interno por Tipo e Empresa – Combustvel Flex Fuel – 2005” (in Portuguese) (PDF). ANFAVEA – Associao Nacional dos Fabricantes de Veculos Automotores (Brazil). http://www.anfavea.com.br/tabelas2005/autoveiculos/tabela08_vendas.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-16.  See Table 08 for flex-fuel sales and Table 07 for gasoline sales.

^ “Tabela 08 – Vendas Atacado Mercado Interno por Tipo e Empresa – Combustvel Flex Fuel – 2007” (in Portuguese) (PDF). ANFAVEA – Associao Nacional dos Fabricantes de Veculos Automotores (Brazil). http://www.anfavea.com.br/tabelas2007/autoveiculos/tabela08_vendas.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-16.  See Table 08 for flex-fuel sales and Table 07 for gasoline sales.

^ “Tabela 08 – Vendas Atacado Mercado Interno por Tipo e Empresa – Combustvel Flex Fuel – 2008” (in Portuguese) (PDF). ANFAVEA – Associao Nacional dos Fabricantes de Veculos Automotores (Brazil). http://www.anfavea.com.br/tabelas2008/autoveiculos/tabela08_vendas.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-16.  See Table

By: hotxueboy
Posted: 2010/10/10